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All Romanian Medical Universities offer postgraduate medical programmes for EU and non-EU medical graduates. Postgraduate medical study focuses on the acquisition of a medical specialty (or residency) and covers theoretical and practical training, according to the approved EU and national training curricular guidelines for the respective specialty. Depending on the specialty, training usually lasts 4-6 years and takes place at medical university affiliated hospitals and clinics exclusively offering postgraduate-level medical practice, under the guidance of a residency coordinator or the director of the university hospital. Upon completion of the residency specialization training program, students have to sit for a written and clinical practice exam, upon successful completion of which, the Ministry of Health issues a certificate of completion of the respective specialty. Most medical graduates of Romanian medical universities, whether Romanian, EU citizens or non-EU citizens, prefer to continue with their specialization in Romania, either due to the availability of funding (EU citizens) or the low cost of living in Romania or both.

Note that it is imperative by this time that all foreigners (EU and non EU candidates) should have at least some competency in the Romanian language or take a 9-month preparatory course culminating with a Romanian language exam (B2 level in the EU framework) usually at a University, so as to be able to communicate with patients they treat in hospitals, as is the case in any country that a medical professional seeks specialization whose native language is not the one spoken. Successful EU candidates have to register directly with the Ministry of Health Directorate, while non-EU candidates apply to the Ministry of Education, and subsequently the Ministry of Health approves their registration.

Every year, the Ministry of Health allocates a certain number of positions for EU candidates (including Romanians) and Non-EU candidates. It publishes all available specialty vacancies in Medical University affiliated Hospitals and clinics as early as late August-Early September, and candidates can apply by early November. Eligible candidates are only medical graduates who have completed their undergraduate studies in Medicine within the last 5 years or else they do not have the right to practise medicine in Romania. Generally speaking, EU candidates, including Romanians, are admitted to specialization positions through an application as well as a mandatory residency examination process and subsequently must secure funding, but non-EU candidates are admitted through an application process as they are self-funded.

Non-EU students apply for a residency specialization program by submitting all necessary documentation to the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports (MECI) and, in turn, it is the Ministry of Health that approves the specialty they have chosen to pursue. The fees that non-EU students pay range from 3,300-7,700 Euros a year.

EU and Romanian students are admitted to residency specialization programmes by participating at the end of November in a regional competition examination, organized by the Ministry of Health. Students need to submit their application documents to the directorate of the Public Health at the Ministry of Health. Sometimes, depending on position availability, the Ministry of Health may announce additional places for residency, thus organizing a second residency exam session within March. The regional competitions take place in only six medical universities: Iasi, Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Craiova, Targu Mures and Timisoara, and the results are published by the Ministry of Health. The local residency committees are responsible for organizing and conducting competitions including the exam material and correction. The exam material is taken from bibliography approved by the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, and includes 200 multiple-choice questions as well as 50 questions requiring only one correct answer, and 150 questions requiring 2-4 correct answers, depending on variables and per-case criteria or diagnoses. The duration of the test is 4 hours and the minimum allowed passing score is 60%. After successfully passing the exam, and having begun their residency practice, candidates are entitled to receive a monthly salary ranging from 579 to 1,013 RON (approx. £97-170) payable by the Romanian Government.

Candidates' application files should contain the following documents to ensure eligibility for the regional specialty residence exams:

  1. Application form, indicating the name of candidate as shown on ID card/passport, and father's name and initial(s)
  2. Identity Card or Passport certified copy (pages that  show the name of the candidate and date of birth)
  3. Certified copy of the Medical Diploma/Degree
  4. A5 medical certificate stating that the candidate is physically and mentally healthy to continue with his or her residency
  5. Receipt of 300 RON (£55) fee for participating in the exam
  6. Certified photocopy of relevant documents (marriage certificates, etc.) as a proof of name-change if the candidate's name has changed

EU or non-EU Students interested in receiving a second specialty in Romania will have to pay tuition fees after they submit their application documents, payable directly to the Ministry of Health in September for the first session, or in April for the second session.

Candidates' application files should contain the following documents to ensure eligibility for the second regional specialty residence:

  1. Application form of license registration, indicating: full name, current employer and type of employment contract, current specialty, specialty for which registration is desired and contact number(s)
  2. Current employer should indicate on the candidate's application for the second specialization the address of the Public Health Unit, the candidate's employment status, the specialty type, the university training centre, and the remuneration received for this period
  3. Notice of registration issued by the Rector (or else the Dean) of the University Hospital's training programme
  4. Photocopy of the certificate of the undergraduate physician diploma/Degree
  5. Photocopy of the certificate that the candidates is registered at the respective medical professional organization
  6. A5 Health medical certificate stating that the candidate is physically and mentally healthy to continue with his or her residency
  7. Certified copy of identity card / passport
  8. Photocopy of the relevant documents (marriage certificates etc) as proof of name-change, if the candidate's name has changed
  9. Commitment fee declaration (lists the tuition fee instalments and the dates these have to be paid) for the training programme of the second residency as approved by the joint order of the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports.

The medical and dental specializations are:

No Specialty Years
A. Medical Specialities
     I. Clinical Specialities
           Ia. Medical Group
1. Allergology and Clinical Immunology 4
2. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 5
3. Infectious Diseases 4
4. Cardiology 5
5. Dermatovenereology 4
6. Diabetes, nutritional and metabolic diseases 4
7. Endocrinology 4
8. Medical Assessment of work ability 3
9. Clinical Pharmacology 4
10. Gastroenterology 4
11. Medical Genetics 4
12. Geriatrics and Gerontology 4
13. Hematology 4
14. Family Medicine 3
15. Emergency Medicine 5
16. Internal Medicine 5
17. Occupational Medicine 4
18. Sports Medicine 4
19. Nephrology 4
20. Neonatology 4
21. Neurology 4
22. Paediatric Neurology 4
23. Medical Oncology 5
24. Paediatrics 5
25. Pulmonary 4
26. Psychiatry 4
27. Paediatric Psychiatry 4
28. Radiotherapy 4
29. Recuperation, Physical Medicine and Balneology 4
30. Rheumatology 4
           Ib. Surgical Group
31. Cardiovascular Surgery 6
32. General Surgery 6
33. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 5
34. Paediatric surgery 5
35. Plastic surgery, reconstructive microsurgery 5
36. Thoracic Surgery 5
37. Vascular surgery 5
38. Neurosurgery 6
39. Obstetrics and gynecology 5
40. Ophthalmology 4
41. Paediatric Orthopaedics 6
42. Orthopaedics and Traumatology 5
43. Otorhinolaryngology 4
44. Urology 5
45. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 5
    II. Specialties Laboratory
46. Pathological anatomy 4
47. Epidemiology 3
48 Hygiene 3
49. Laboratory Medicine 4
50. Forensic 4
51. Nuclear Medicine 4
52. Medical radiology 4
53. Public health and management 4
B. Dental Specialties
1. Dentoalveolar surgery 3
2. Orthodontics and dento-facial orthopaedics 3
3. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 5
4. Endodontic 3
5. Periodontology - Parodontologie 3
6. Dental prosthetics 3
 
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